In the 19th century, the Palace in Ostrów Tumski became the seat of the head of the Polish Catholic Church: the Primate. Poles, at the time embroiled in a fight for their independence and identity, expected him to display heroism and defend national interests. As of 1866, the post of Primate was held by Mieczysław Ledóchowski. His main focus was on matters of the church rather than those of the nation. He consistently forbid Poles to demonstrate their patriotic sentiments in the church and showed no interest in these problems. He also vehemently opposed any interference in church affairs by the Prussians. He thus fell into disfavour with both parties. His arrest and imprisonment by the Prussians changed his views on national affairs. To Poles he became a hero – a symbol of the fight against persecution and unfair Prussian policies.